Fin garden was recorded in the list of national monuments determined by number 238 in the year 1935 and then recorded in the list of world heritage sites with eight other historic gardens in 2011, specified with number 1993.
Fin Garden is one of the most beautiful and most famous Persian gardens, which is one of Kashan’s tourist attractions, is considered as an example of designing the Persian Gardens. From many years ago, the Fin region has been at the forefront of rulers and kings because of the water which flows from the spring. The History of Qom, one of the oldest historical source, writes: «Buildings and Qanats have been constructed by Jamshid’s command». Afterwards, the construction of the royal monuments was attributed to the king of the Buyid dynasty and was rebuilt at the time of the Ilkhanate dynasty. One of Kashan tours is visiting the Abyaneh village and Fin Garden which are always popular in public due to their attractiveness. The formation of the Fin Garden in its new location is related to Safavid era, after the earthquake in 982 AH, which its entrance vestibule, central pavilion, Fin bath museum and its fortification constructed in this period of time. After that, the Karim Khan’s private court located next to the garden during the reign of Zand dynasty and also Qajar kings added some areas like the Shotor Galuye Qajar, Qajar Bathhouse, Shah-neshin, Nezam al-Dowleh’s private court and wind catcher mansion (current library) to the garden. Some extensions are added to the Fin Garden in contemporary era.
Architectural Features of Fin Garden
The Fin Garden is a combination of natural elements such as water and trees, and constant architectural elements, as different buildings. This garden is one of the most important examples of the Persian Garden, which is still alive and remained as a tourist attraction.
Water is one of the key elements in designing Fin Garden. Water can be seen in the form of stagnant water (the pool which is in front of the Pavilion and the Safavid Howz-khaneh), flowing water (streams), fountain water. Soleymanieh spring provides the flowing water in streams, pools and Howz. The water of this spring, first, stocks in a pool behind the garden. The difference between the height of the pool and the level of the streams, has created fountains thrown up by the gravity method.
How to Build and Operate Fountains
There are earthenware pipes under all of the streams (1 meter down the ground level). Water enters from one side and goes out from fountains because the end of the pipe is blocked. Pipes are produced in different diameters because of the ground slope, so that the pressure can be different. The beginning part of the pipe is thicker than its bottom so the water pressure divides into equal pressure and it goes out from the fountains equally. The water of the main cellar comes out from 12 springs in it, called the Boiling Spring. From then on, water flows in streams made with turquoise Kashi. The color that is in contrast with the color of the desert soils.
Water Supply System Designer
Ghyath al-Din Jamshid Mas’ud al-Kashani is the designer of the water supply system of the Fin Garden. He used the communicating vessels system and the natural slope of the ground two hundred years prior to Pascal.
Plants and Trees
The most important plants of the Fin Garden include 579 Cypress trees and 11 Plane trees. Most of the garden trees are between 100 and 470 years old. Over the past fifteen years, and especially after the year 2007, a number of factors caused of the catastrophes of drought and tree disease.
The Existing Buildings in Fin Garden
Maintaining symmetry has had a special significance in the early design of the garden. But gradually this symmetry has diminished by the intervention of the kings.
The Safavid Pavilion (Shotor Galuye Shah Abbas)
Kushk (Pavilion) is a small palace, usually located at the center of the Persian gardens at the intersection of the main longitudinal and transverse axis. The central pavilion of the garden was built in Shah Abbas I era for the purpose of recreation, holding ceremonies and proskynesis which was two-storied and a beautiful Kolah-Farangi added to its top in Shah Safi era that doesn’t exist today. The Safavid Kushk is one of the quadrilateral pavilions and its space is designed to open to four sides of the Fin Garden. The existence of a pond at the center of the mansion used to create a pleasant atmosphere.
The Fortification of the Garden
One of the most characteristic features of the Fin Garden is its strong fortification which made there as a Castle-Garden. Seeing the fortification of the Fin Garden illustrates its glory and magnificence, in addition to the strength and safety of the garden and, and the fact that it’s also distinguished from other gardens. The main fence of the garden was built with 4 towers during the Safavid era (the time of the formation of the garden). But changes were made to its shape and form in the following periods and even, for unknown reasons, the southern tower of the garden was completely destroyed, and also the fortification of the garden grew by adding sections like Khalvat-e Nezam al-Dowleh, stable and 3 towers in Qajar era.
There are two baths (small and large) adjacent to each other, on the east side and behind the main fence of the garden, which are known Safavid and Qajar baths in historical backgrounds. They used to enter the Bineh (dressing room) after passing through the Mian Dar (communicating aisles), and then to the bathtub, where there was a Khazineh, filled with warm water, and other pools, in both baths, like in other old baths. The bathhouse design was such that the public could use without entering to the Fin Garden. Today, two bathhouses are connected and their doors are closed from outside of the garden. Amir Kabir, the great man of Iranian history, was martyred in the small bathhouse in 1852 and from that day on Fin Garden renowned for Fin Bath.
More than 10 hotels of Kashan are located less than 10km from the Fin Garden, so as to make tourists feel comfortable. Generally, one of the things you can do in Kashan and one of the purposes of the tourists who travel to Kashan is to visit the Fin Garden.